Why do women smoke?
The question of why men smoke is the subject of a number of different studies and theories.
Some studies suggest that smoking may be an indicator of physical and mental health issues, while others suggest that the smoke can lead to cardiovascular disease and death.
However, a review published in the BMJ by researchers at King’s College London and the University of Sheffield, England, shows that the answer is neither clear nor conclusive.
“This is a very intriguing study, which demonstrates that there are substantial differences in the way men and women smoke and that the question of whether smoking causes cancer is a complex one,” said Dr. David Goodall, professor of medicine at the University’s School of Medicine and co-author of the review.
“The evidence for causality has been lacking, and this study provides the first convincing evidence that smoking is associated with cancer.”
Dr. Goodall said that while the new findings do not directly link smoking to cancer, it is an important finding that may influence the way cancer research is carried out.
“In the future, more research is needed to fully understand the potential link between smoking and cancer and whether it is a reliable indicator of future risk,” he said.
“However, this is a significant finding, and it is likely to inform our work to understand how smoking may influence health outcomes in the future.”
The study included 1,737 women and 2,000 men aged between 18 and 79.
Researchers used a questionnaire to collect information on smoking status, demographics, family history of cancer, history of diabetes and other diseases, and lifestyle factors, such as alcohol consumption.
The results showed that women were more likely to smoke than men, with a significant increase in smoking in the first year of life.
“Smoking is associated in some studies with obesity, depression and depression-related mental health problems,” said co-lead author Dr. Sarah O’Neill, from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the UK’s National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE).
“In addition, women have higher smoking rates than men and they are more likely than men to report current use of tobacco and other tobacco products, and their use of alcohol and other alcohol-related problems.”
The researchers also found that smoking was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in women.
“Previous studies have suggested that the increased risk is caused by increased levels of cholesterol and oxidative stress, and that this is related to smoking,” said lead author Dr Sarah Mould, from King’s.
“These results are in line with these findings, as smoking is thought to have an effect on the body’s lipid profile.
We also found a strong relationship between cigarette smoking and heart disease in our cohort.”
While the research does not directly relate to smoking, Dr. Mould said that it has important implications for the prevention of lung cancer.
“We are now starting to look at smoking as a predictor of lung disease and we need to understand why smoking is such a strong predictor,” she said.